Learn how to synchronize Duo users and groups from your existing Active Directory domain via the Authentication Proxy.
Import Duo user names and other identity information directly from your on-premises Active Directory (AD) forest or domain or Active Directory Lightweight Directory Service (AD LDS) instance into Duo with Duo Security's Directory Sync feature.
Duo Directory Sync is a one-way operation. No information from Duo is imported into your user directory. Scheduled synchronization of your full directory runs twice a day, or on-demand when initiated from the Admin Panel. You can also run an individual user sync on-demand from the Admin Panel or programmatically via Admin API.
The Directory Sync feature is part of the Duo Beyond, Duo Access, and Duo MFA plans.
Before executing any Active Directory synchronization with Duo, understand the effect that synchronization can have on accounts with the same name. Suppose that you already have some Duo users, and one or more of these users have the same username on your Active Directory server. Performing a synchronization will cause the existing Duo users' information to be merged with, and in some cases overwritten by the Active Directory information, such as email addresses in Duo changing to match the value stored in the synced directory.
Likewise, if you synchronize multiple directories and there are non-unique usernames among those directories, the net result is that there will be only one Duo user created with that username, and each sync will update that Duo user with different information.
Multiple directory syncs that use non-unique user names or the same selected groups may also produce undesired results, as each sync process could overwrite the user with different information or update the group memberships for a given user unexpectedly.
Prerequisites necessary for Active Directory synchronization are as follows:
Role required: Owner, Administrator, or User Manager.
To start setting up Directory Sync:
Log in to the Duo Admin Panel and click Users in the left side bar. Then click Directory Sync on the submenu or click the Directory Sync link on the "Users" page.
Click the Active Directory tab heading, and then click the Add New Active Directory Sync button.
You'll be taken to the details page for your new directory sync in the Duo Admin Panel. The new directory's name defaults to AD Sync (and increments for each additional directory added i.e. "AD Sync (2)"). Click the Rename link if you'd like to change the directory sync's name to something different, clicking Save to apply the new name.
The "Status" section of the page shows you the current state of your directory sync. When your Active Directory sync setup is complete, you'll be able to verify the connection here.
As you have just created the new directory, the status indicates your next step is to deploy and configure the Duo Authentication Proxy.
The next step after saving the directory settings is to install the Duo Authentication Proxy software on a machine that can connect to both Duo's cloud service and to your LDAP server. Before proceeding, you should locate (or set up) a system in your environment on which you will install the Duo Authentication Proxy. This host needs LDAP connectivity to your AD domain controller (ports 389/636 or whichever ports accept Active Directory binds), as well as HTTPS/443 connectivity to Duo.
If you are already running an Authentication Proxy server in your environment, you can also use that host for directory synchronization. If your existing Authentication proxy server is version 5.2.0 or later, and it's already running a directory sync, you can use the same proxy to run additional syncs as long as they are all for the same Duo customer account (identical
This application communicates with Duo's service on TCP port 443. Firewall configurations that restrict outbound access to Duo's service with rules using destination IP addresses or IP address ranges aren't recommended, since these may change over time to maintain our service's high availability. If your organization requires IP-based rules, please review this Duo KB article.
Locate (or set up) a system on which you will install the Duo Authentication Proxy. The proxy supports Windows and Linux systems (in particular, we recommend Windows Server 2012 R2 or later, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 or later, CentOS 6 or later, or Debian 6 or later).
If you opted for Integrated authentication, the Authentication Proxy server must be a domain-joined Windows 2012 or later server.
If you will reuse an existing Duo Authentication Proxy server for this new application, you can skip the install steps and go to Configure the Proxy.
The Duo Authentication Proxy can be installed on a physical or virtual host. We recommend a system with at least 1 CPU, 200 MB disk space, and 4 GB RAM (although 1 GB RAM is usually sufficient). See additional Authentication Proxy performance recommendations in the Duo Authentication Proxy Reference.
When installing, you can choose whether or not you want to install the Proxy Manager. The Proxy Manager is a Windows utility that helps you edit the Duo Authentication Proxy configuration, determine the proxy's status, and start or stop the proxy service. Learn more about using the Proxy Manager. Installing the Proxy Manager adds about 100 MB to the installed size.
If you do not want to install the Proxy Manager, you may deselect it on the "Choose Components" installer screen before clicking Install.
To perform a silent install on Windows, issue the following from an elevated command prompt after downloading the installer (replacing version with the actual version you downloaded):
/exclude-auth-proxy-manager to install silently without the Proxy Manager:
duoauthproxy-version.exe /S /exclude-auth-proxy-manager
Ensure that Perl and a compiler toolchain are installed. On most recent RPM-based distributions — like Fedora, RedHat Enterprise, and CentOS — you can install these by running (as root):
$ yum install gcc make libffi-devel perl zlib-devel diffutils
On Debian-derived systems, install these dependencies by running (as root):
$ apt-get install build-essential libffi-dev perl zlib1g-dev
If SELinux is present on your system and you want the Authentication Proxy installer to build and install its SELinux module, include
selinux-policy-devel in the dependencies:
$ yum install gcc make libffi-devel perl zlib-devel diffutils selinux-policy-devel
$ apt-get install build-essential libffi-dev perl zlib1g-dev selinux-policy-devel
Download the most recent Authentication Proxy for Unix from https://dl.duosecurity.com/duoauthproxy-latest-src.tgz. From the command line you can use
wget to download the file, like
$ wget --content-disposition https://dl.duosecurity.com/duoauthproxy-latest-src.tgz. Depending on your download method, the actual filename may reflect the version e.g. duoauthproxy-5.7.1-src.tgz. View checksums for Duo downloads here.
Extract the Authentication Proxy files and build it as follows:
$ tar xzf duoauthproxy-5.7.1-src.tgz $ cd duoauthproxy-version-src $ make
Install the authentication proxy (as root):
$ cd duoauthproxy-build $ ./install
Follow the prompts to complete the installation. The installer creates a user to run the proxy service and a group to own the log directory and files. You can accept the default user and group names or enter your own.
If SELinux is present on the target server, the Duo installer will ask you if you want to install the Authentication Proxy SELinux module. Your selection affects whether systemd can start the Authentication Proxy after installation.
|SELinux Mode||Default Response||Result|
|Enforcing||Yes||Choose 'yes' to install the Authentication Proxy's SELinux module. This permits start of the Authentication Proxy service by systemd. If you choose 'no' then the SELinux module is not installed, and systemd cannot start the Authentication Proxy service.|
|Permissive||No||Choose 'no' to decline install of the Authentication Proxy's SELinux module. The Authentication Proxy service can be started by systemd. However, if you change SELinux from permissive to enforcing mode after installing the Duo proxy, systemd can no longer start the Authentication Proxy service. If you plan to enable SELinux enforcing mode later, you should choose 'yes' to install the Authentication Proxy SELinux module now.|
To install the Duo proxy silently with the default options, use the following command:
sudo ./duoauthproxy-build/install --install-dir /opt/duoauthproxy --service-user duo_authproxy_svc --log-group duo_authproxy_grp --create-init-script yes
--enable-selinux=yes|no to the install command to choose whether to install the Authentication Proxy SELinux module.
After the installation completes, you will need to configure the proxy. Note that as of v4.0.0, the default file access for the
conf directory is restricted to the built-in "Administrators" group during installation on Windows systems.
The Duo Authentication Proxy configuration file is named
authproxy.cfg, and located in the
conf subdirectory of the proxy installation.
|Windows||v5.0.0 and later||
|Windows||v4.0.2 and earlier||
Download the Authentication Proxy
authproxy.cfg file for your AD domain sync by clicking the Duo Authentication Proxy Config link in step 2 of the Duo Authentication Proxy section of the directory properties page.
The configuration file is formatted as a simple INI file. Section headings appear as:
Individual properties beneath a section appear as:
A first time Authentication Proxy install may include an existing
authproxy.cfg with some example content. If this is the first time you're configuring this Authentication Proxy server, you should delete the existing sample content.
The Duo Authentication Proxy Manager is a Windows utility for managing the Authentication Proxy installation on the Windows server where you install the Authentication Proxy. The Proxy Manager comes with Duo Authentication Proxy for Windows version 5.6.0 and later.
The Proxy Manager cannot manage remote Duo Authentication Proxy servers, nor can you install the Proxy Manager as a stand-alone application. There is no Proxy Manager available for Linux. The Proxy Manager only functions as part of a local Duo Authentication Proxy installation on Windows servers.
Learn more about using the Proxy Manager in the Duo Authentication Proxy Reference.
To launch the Proxy Manager utility:
%ProgramFiles%\Duo Security Authentication Proxy\conf\authproxy.cfgfile for editing.
Use the Proxy Manager editor on the left to make the
authproxy.cfg changes in these instructions. As you type into the editor, the Proxy Manager will automatically suggest configuration options. Accepting these suggestions helps make sure you use the correct option syntax.
As you follow the instructions on this page to edit the Authentication Proxy configuration, you can click Validate to verify your changes (output shown on the right).
When you complete the Authentication Proxy configuration steps in this document, you can use the Save button to write your updates to
authproxy.cfg, and then use the
authproxy.cfg button to start the Authentication Proxy service before continuing on to the next configuration steps.
If you do not use the Proxy Manager to edit your configuration then we recommend using WordPad or another text editor instead of Notepad when editing the config file on Windows.
authproxy.cfg in your Authentication Proxy installation's
conf directory in a text editor, or in the Proxy Manager utility if present on your Windows proxy server.
Download the Authentication Proxy
authproxy.cfg file for your Active Directory sync by clicking the Duo Authentication Proxy Config link in step 2 of the Duo Authentication Proxy section of the directory properties page.
Open the downloaded file in a text editor to copy its contents, and then paste the information from that
authproxy.cfg file you downloaded into the installed Authentication Proxy's
authproxy.cfg file (which you opened in a text editor or in the Proxy Manager on Windows).
authproxy.cfg file for Active Directory sync contains a
[cloud] section with the following properties:
|ikey||your integration key|
|skey||your secret key|
|api_host||your API hostname (i.e.,
NTLMv1, NTLMv2, or Plain authentication
|ikey||Your integration key.|
|skey||Your secret key.|
|api_host||Your API hostname (i.e.,
|service_account_username||The account used to bind to Active Directory. This account needs read-only access to your directory.|
|service_account_password||The directory password for the service_account_username user.|
Add your service account information (if necessary, depending on the authentication type you chose) to the information you downloaded and copied to your Authentication Proxy server's
authproxy.cfg configuration file. Make sure to save your configuration file when done, or validate and then save in the Proxy Manager utility.
To configure an existing Authentication Proxy server for directory sync, simply append the
[cloud] section of the config file downloaded from the Duo Admin Panel directory properties page to the current
authproxy.cfg file located in the Duo Security Authentication Proxy conf folder. If you already have a
[cloud] section present (and you are running proxy version 5.2.0 or later), increment the next section you're adding as
Save the configuration file then restart the Duo Authentication Proxy service for the change to take effect.
Here's a sample
authproxy.cfg file for Plain authentication:
[cloud] ikey=DIXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX skey=2v3O7uCJmdhFK6hsKS82HGyNUR5L1XGCRx44DjCQ api_host=api-XXXXXXXX.duosecurity.com service_account_username=duosync service_account_password=Pass12345
Here's an example for multiple directory syncs using Integrated (SSPI) authentication. Notice the integration key differs but the API host is the same in both sections; this reflects the requirement that the multiple syncs must be for a single Duo customer account:
[cloud] ikey=DIABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQR skey=XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX api_host=api-12345678.duosecurity.com [cloud2] ikey=DISTUVWXYZABCDEFGHIJ skey=XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX api_host=api-12345678.duosecurity.com
When running the Authentication Proxy on Windows, you may encrypt the directory user password for NTLMv1/v2/Plain authentication stored in the
[cloud] section if you do not want to store them as plain text. Use the
authproxy_passwd.exe program, which can be found in the
bin directory of your Authentication Proxy installation.
c:\>"C:\Program Files\Duo Security Authentication Proxy\bin\authproxy_passwd.exe" Password: Re-enter password: AQAAANCMnd8BFdERjHoAwE/Cl+sBAAAA5hII/4JlnEeB5xMBzB5D/wQAAAAeAAAAdwBpAG4AMwAyAGMAcgB5AHAAd ABvAC4AcAB5AAAAA2YAAMAAAAAQAAAA5AHAAdABvAC4AcAB5AAAAA2YAAMAAAAAQAAAASApm6tif+wDKj+Rt0UtQ9 QAAAAAEgAlnEeB5xMBzB5D/wQAAAAeAAAAdwBpAG4AMwAyAGMAcgB5AHAAdABvQ8M7voQmwOOxqv91QmJs9QAAAAA EgAAAoAAAABAAAACxWVslLxrlFOunUUeq+kg1CAAAAPFj+oygch2RFAAAAD9HgbRonCsy/GNx4M9FxSq/KJCq
The encrypted password is specific to the server where it was generated, and will not work if copied to a different machine. If you have multiple Authentication Proxy servers with the same service account specified, be sure to run
authproxy_passwd.exe separately on each one.
Copy and paste the output into your configuration file as and remove any line breaks. You may find it easier to redirect the command output to a file and then open the file in Notepad.
When using encrypted passwords or secrets, use the "protected" version of the parameter:
Here's a sample
authproxy.cfg file for Plain authentication with an encrypted secret key and service account password:
[cloud] ikey=DIXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX skey_protected=AQAAANCMnd8BFdERjHoAwE/Cl+sBAAAAEK80Kg76BUKI63ApctGZ/wQAAAAeAAAAdwBpAG4AMwAyAGMAcgB5AHAAdABvAC4AcAB5AAAAA2YAAMAAAAAQAAAAMlqARKe+pLNcFwVWWzLfrwAAAAAEgAAAoAAAABAAAAAe+ADzHx0OmowXFu+95w4ACAAAAC+9Hae0HWbNFAAAAA/94/UTD1iB2vnlGcVvDaqKtdcu api_host=api-XXXXXXXX.duosecurity.com service_account_username=duosync service_account_password_protected=QAAANCMnd8BFdERjHoAwE/Cl+sBAAAA5hII/4JlnEeB5xMBzB5D/wQAAAAeAAAAdwBpAG4AMwAyAGMAcgB5AHAAdABvAC4AcAB5AAAAA2YAAMAAAAAQAAAA5AHAAdABvAC4AcAB5AAAAA2YAAMAAAAAQAAAASApm6tif+wDKj+Rt0UtQ9QAAAAAEgAlnEeB5xMBzB5D/wQAAAAeAAAAdwBpAG4AMwAyAGMAcgB5AHAAdABvQ8M7voQmwOOxqv91QmJs9QAAAAAEgAAAoAAAABAAAACxWVslLxrlFOunUUeq+kg1CAAAAPFj+oygch2RFAAAAD9HgbRonCsy/GNx4M9FxSq/KJCq
If you installed the Duo Authentication Proxy Manager utility (available with 5.6.0 and later), click the Start Service button at the top of the Proxy Manager window to start the service.
To start the service from the command line, open an Administrator command prompt and run:
net start DuoAuthProxy
Alternatively, open the Windows Services console (
services.msc), locate "Duo Security Authentication Proxy Service" in the list of services, and click the Start Service button.
Authentication Proxy v5.1.0 and later includes the
authproxyctl executable, which shows the connectivity tool output when starting the service. The installer adds the Authentication Proxy
C:\Program Files\Duo Security Authentication Proxy\bin to your system path automatically, so you should not need to specify the full path to
authproxyctl to run it.
From an administrator command prompt run:
If the service starts successfully, Authentication Proxy service output is written to the authproxy.log file, which can be found in the
If you see an error saying that the "service could not be started", open the Application Event Viewer and look for an Error from the source "DuoAuthProxy". The traceback may include a "ConfigError" that can help you find the source of the issue.
Stop and restart the Authentication Proxy service by either clicking the Restart Service button in the Duo Authentication Proxy Manager or the Windows Services console or issuing these commands from an Administrator command prompt:
net stop DuoAuthProxy & net start DuoAuthProxy
To stop and restart the Authentication Proxy using authproxyctl, from an administrator command prompt run:
Open a root shell and run:
# /opt/duoauthproxy/bin/authproxyctl start
To ensure the proxy started successfully, run:
# /opt/duoauthproxy/bin/authproxyctl status
Authentication Proxy service output is written to the authproxy.log file, which can be found in the
To stop and restart the Authentication Proxy, open a root shell and run:
# /opt/duoauthproxy/bin/authproxyctl restart
Once you've started the Authentication Proxy service, return to the directory sync configuration page and click the Test Connection link in step 4 of the Authentication Proxy section. The directory status will indicate the proxy is connected and you're ready to move on to the next setup step, Directory Configuration. If you don't see the proxy connected, double-check the information in your authproxy.cfg and make sure the proxy service is running, then test the connection again.
Enter the required directory connection information:
Enter the IP address or hostname of your AD domain controller (DC), followed by the port the Authentication Proxy server should use to contact the domain controller.
The typical port for unsecured LDAP or STARTTLS is 389, and LDAPS is usually 636.
Click Add Domain Controller to add additional hosts. If the first server in the list doesn't respond when performing a sync, the next server is used as a fallback. If you decommission any of your domain controllers be sure to return to Duo and remove it from the list.
The base DN should be a level in your directory structure above both the users and groups you plan to synchronize.
Select the type of authentication the Authentication Proxy will use to connect to your AD domain controller. One of:
The transport type selected determines how the connection between the Duo Authentication Proxy software and the AD domain server is encrypted, if at all. Connectivity between the Duo Authentication Proxy software and the Duo Security cloud services is always HTTPS secured with SSL and is not affected by this setting. One of:
Selecting LDAPS or STARTTLS exposes additional settings:
Click Save Directory after entering the Directory Configuration information. If the Duo Authentication Proxy was able to contact the specified directory server and perform a search for groups using the given Base DN, then the status shown in the Directory Sync section will show as Connected.
Make changes here if you want to customize which AD attribute values get imported to Duo. The Duo attributes that have default AD attributes defined indicate those defaults as helper text. You can change these default attributes to custom attributes of your choice. Return to using the default attributes by clicking Revert all attributes to default.
You may customize the AD source attributes for these Duo user properties:
Required. The source attribute for the Duo username. The attribute selected should match the primary authentication login name your users submit to Duo. This attribute cannot be customized after the first directory synchronization occurs.
Specify up to eight directory attributes to import as additional usernames for each Duo user by clicking Add a username alias attribute, choosing which alias number to define, and entering the desired source attribute from your directory.
For example, if the Username source attribute is
Be sure to choose directory attributes that have unique values (email address, employee ID, etc.). If any of the username or username alias attribute values is the same for two or more users, those users will be skipped by the sync process.
Unlike the Username, the attributes used for username aliases may be changed after the first directory synchronization.
Default: No aliases imported. Aliases may be defined manually from the Admin Panel or programmatically via Admin API on a per-user basis.
Required. The user's name.
Required. The user's email address. This is used as the destination address for enrollment emails from Duo.
Enable this option if you want Directory Sync to import notes information for your users.
Default: No notes imported.
Populate the "Notes" field for a Duo user with information from Active Directory.
Only configurable if Import notes is selected.
Enable this option if you want Directory Sync to create phones for your users. Imported devices default to the "Generic Smartphone" platform.
If you enable both the Enrollment email and Import phones options, enrollment links are only sent to users with email addresses who do not have phone information populated in AD.
Default: Import no phone information from AD.
Required. Create a phone in Duo with the attribute value as the phone number, attached to the imported user as a generic smartphone 2FA device. Non-US numbers must be stored in AD using the format
To import a landline with an extension, append
Only configurable if Import phones is selected.
Create a phone in Duo with the attribute value as the phone number, attached to the imported user as an additional generic smartphone 2FA device. Non-US numbers must be stored in AD using the format
To import a landline with an extension, append
Only configurable if Import phones is selected.
If you make any changes from the synced attribute defaults, be sure to click the Save Directory button. When done, proceed to group selection.
Do not configure the same selected groups from your source directory in multiple Duo directory syncs. Each sync process may update the group memberships for a given user with undesirable effects on your configured custom application group policies, permitted groups restrictions, or administrative unit assignments.
Click in the Selected Groups box and start typing an AD group name; the list of available groups to sync returned will match the filter. If you have a very large number of groups in your directory, Duo limits the search results to 100 groups, so you may need to type in most of your desired sync group's name or DN (like CN=Duo-Users,OU=Groups,DC=domain,DC=local) to locate it.
If you don't see any of your AD groups listed, review the previous setup steps and correct your configuration.
Once you see your intended group (or a list of groups), click to select the desired group or groups to sync, then click Save Directory once you've added all the groups you want to import. You can select up to 400 groups to sync from the source directory. Members of the groups you choose here will be synced into Duo.
Nested groups are supported; Duo sync imports users from groups nested within your sync group, but creates only the top level group in Duo (the group explicitly selected for directory sync), with all nested group members as direct members of that Duo group.
If you delete and recreate any of the AD groups saved in the sync properties (even if you reused the same group name and members), then you'll need to return to the directory sync property page for your AD domain on the Duo Admin Panel and delete the recreated group from your sync configuration, then re-add the group, and save the directory.
If you save the sync without selecting any groups, or if you remove all the groups selected from the sync config in the future, Duo pauses your scheduled sync upon detecting the missing information and updates the sync status to alert you that no groups have been selected. Correct the issue by selecting one or more groups to sync from the source directory and resuming scheduled synchronization.
Select the Enrollment Email option if you want imported users to automatically receive an enrollment link email when the sync process completes. Only users imported with active status, a valid email address, and who do not already have any enrolled authentication devices in Duo receive an emailed link. The email address is populated by AD sync.
Default: Do not send enrollment emails to imported users.
The enrollment link sent when the sync first imports a user is valid for 30 days. Duo sends an emailed enrollment reminder if the user hasn't yet completed enrollment after two days, and then a second reminder if the user remains unenrolled eight days after the first reminder.
If the user does not complete the enrollment process after 30 days has elapsed, the original enrollment link expires and a new enrollment link is generated at the next sync and sent to the user. This entire 30 day cycle repeats until the user completes Duo enrollment.
The contents of the enrollment email subject and body can be changed on the global Settings page. The enrollment email body should contain the placeholder text "<enrollment-link>", which will be replaced by the link to the enrollment form when the email is sent. The sent message will have a non-editable header added, informing the user it's an automated message sent by Duo and to contact their organization's Duo admins or IT support group with any questions.
If your organization uses e-mail filtering, be sure to allow the sender firstname.lastname@example.org.
Click Save Directory to complete the new Active Directory setup in Duo.
Duo Beyond and Duo Access Plan Users: Global Policy settings affect access to the enrollment portal. Do not apply any global restrictions that could prevent user enrollment. For example, if you configure the User Location policy setting to deny access to a country, then the policy will also block any of your users who attempt to enroll in Duo from that country via an emailed enrollment link. The New User Policy setting for the enrollment portal is always "Require Enrollment".
The directory page shows the status as Connected once all directory configuration steps have been completed successfully. You'll also see options to Sync directory and Sync individual users.
Click Sync Now to run your first sync and immediately import all members of your selected AD groups into Duo.
When complete, you'll see a count of users and groups synced into Duo.
Whether you run your first sync immediately after setup or not, directory sync runs automatically twice a day (at a set 12-hour interval chosen at random). You can always return to the Duo Admin Panel to initiate a manual sync.
Note that once you import users from Active Directory into Duo you may not change the AD username source attribute, but you can enable or disable username normalization. See the FAQ for more information.
If you need to cancel a full sync in progress then click the Cancel sync action that appears while the sync is running. This will stop the sync, but any user and group updates already applied by the sync before you canceled it remain in place.
We recommend running another full sync at the earliest opportunity to address any user or group inconsistencies from the canceled sync.
Role required: Owner, Administrator, User Manager, or Help Desk.
When you just need to import information for a few users from Active Directory you can interactively sync selected users instead of syncing the entire directory. For example, you may have some new employee accounts in AD who need a corresponding Duo account, or you might have just disabled an AD user and need that status carried over to Duo. Syncing these individual user accounts updates Duo immediately.
To sync individual users:
Navigate to the directory's details page in the Duo Admin Panel.
Type up to 50 Active Directory user names as a comma-separated list into the Sync individual users text box found in the "Directory Sync" section on the directory's properties page. If you used a different source attribute than
sAMAccountName for the Duo username, you must type each username exactly as it is shown (or will be shown) in Duo i.e. if you opted to use
Additionally, individually synced users must be members of a group specified as a "Selected Group" in your directory's configuration. If you try to sync an individual user who is not a member of a selected group then no update of that user occurs.
Click the Sync Users button to import information about the specified user or users.
When initiated, the individual user sync verifies that each specified user is a member of a group currently synced with Duo and then imports information for that user into Duo. If a specified user doesn't already exist in Duo, the sync creates them using the information imported from the source directory. If you enabled the option to send enrollment emails and the new user has the email address attribute populated, then a new user created by the individual user sync receives an emailed enrollment link.
Individual user sync updates an existing specified user with information from the source directory. The sync can change attribute values (except the username), modify group memberships, or disable the user in Duo if they are disabled in the source directory.
If you include a specified user that is no longer a member of any group synced into Duo, then the sync marks the user for deletion.
In addition to syncing individual users by username from the directory's details page, you can also perform an individual sync on an existing Duo user by visiting that user's properties page in the Duo Admin Panel and clicking the Sync This User link at the top-right.
Use the AdminAPI directory key from the "Directory Sync" section of the page to perform a sync operation on an individual user using Duo's Admin API.
After adding new users to Duo through Active Directory synchronization, your next step is to have them activate their Duo access (if you chose not to send enrollment emails to synced users when creating your directory in Duo). Because a phone created by directory sync defaults to the "Generic Smartphone" platform, on the Users page you'll see a notification bar indicating that users have not yet activated the Duo Mobile smartphone app. This bar provides a link to click to send these users activation links.
For more information on user activation, see Activating Duo Mobile After Enrollment.
If you did choose to send enrollment emails to synced users automatically, the Pending Enrollments table shows which users created by directory sync (or bulk enrollment) have not yet completed enrolling their 2FA devices in Duo, along with the user's email address and the expiration date for the enrollment link previously sent.
If you need to send a user another copy of the enrollment link email, click the Resend button on the right of that user's information, or click Resend All to send the email again to all users with outstanding enrollment links. Resending the email does not change the current enrollment link's expiration date and uses the same email address that was used when the original enrollment was sent.
Click Delete to remove a pending enrollment. Deleting a pending enrollment immediately invalidates any unexpired enrollment link previously sent to that user. The next time directory sync runs, a new enrollment link will be emailed to that users, as long as they remain a member of a synced group and the sync configuration still has the "Enrollment Email" option enabled.
User attributes synced from an external directory cannot be edited in Duo via the Admin Panel, Admin API, or CSV import. This always applies to the required attributes username, full name, email address, plus phone numbers (if you chose to import phones), and group memberships. Changes to these user attributes should be made in the external directory and then synced over to Duo.
You may edit Duo user properties that aren't synced from Active Directory via the Admin Panel, Admin API, or CSV import, including those that correspond with optional AD sync attributes you chose not to import. However, if you update your AD sync to begin importing values for a previously unconfigured optional attribute, the sync will overwrite any previously configured values with the information imported from Active Directory.
You do not enable import of Notes when you create your AD directory sync. The sync imports the username, email, and name from AD, but imports no notes information. You can edit the "Notes" field for synced Duo users. but you may not edit the "Username", "Full Name", or "Email" properties for synced users.
You specify a source attribute for Username alias 1 but not for the remaining aliases. The sync imports values for "Username Alias 1" from Azure, and no other aliases. You can't edit "Username Alias 1" for a synced user, but you can edit additional aliases beyond the first.
You do not specify a source attribute for Username alias 1. The sync creates users with no aliases, and you manually add values for "Username Alias 1" to some Duo users from the Admin Panel. You update your configured AD sync to add a source attribute for Username alias 1. The next sync updates the "Username Alias 1" value for all synced users to match the value in AD, overwriting the aliases you added manually.
Admins can't disable individual Duo users managed by directory sync from the Duo Admin Panel, Admin API, or CSV import. Directory sync checks the user account status in the source directory and uses that information to determine whether the corresponding Duo account should remain enabled.
If a user is disabled in the source Active Directory (
userAccountControl set to
514), on the next sync Duo updates the user's status to "Disabled" but does not send that user to the trash, and retains the user's group memberships. The user remains read-only, and cannot be manually enabled.
You can restore the disabled Duo account to active status by enabling the account in the source directory and running a sync.
You may disable a group of synced users by changing the status of that group to Disabled. This prevents any user who is a member of that group from logging in with Duo, regardless of that individual user's status. See the Using Groups and Group Status Administration documentation for more information.
You may not delete a synced user from Duo as long as directory sync is actively managing that user. If a synced directory user is removed from all external directory groups that sync to Duo (or if the user account is deleted from the source directory), the user is sent to the Trash and marked as "Pending Deletion", and the user can no longer authenticate to Duo. The user's properties are read-only and you are no longer billed for that user.
Locate users pending deletion in the Trash view, accessed by clicking the Trash count shown at the top of the Users page.
If the user marked for deletion is not reconnected to an external directory account via the sync within seven days the user is automatically deleted from Duo. The user's properties show the target date for deletion. A Duo admin can manually delete a synced user from the Trash via the Permanently Delete link at any time during those seven days.
Duo groups created by directory sync may only be managed by the sync. You can't change the group's members interactively from the Admin Panel interface, via CSV import, or programmatically with the Admin API.
To update the members of a sync-managed group, make the necessary changes in the source directory and import them into Duo by running a full or single-user sync.
Groups managed by Active Directory sync are identified as such in the Admin Panel and Admin API output. When viewing groups in the Admin Panel, you'll see from AD Sync "name of sync" appended to the group's name or as the group's description. In Admin API output the sync information is appended to the group's name.
You can have multiple syncs managing groups with the same name (such as a "Duo Users" group managed by AD sync and also a "Duo Users" group managed by Azure sync), or even a manually created "Duo Users" group not managed by any sync. Each sync-managed group only contains Duo user members managed by the same directory sync, and an unmanaged group can only contain users also not managed by any directory sync.
Removing a group from the directory's configuration in Duo marks any members of that group for deletion if they are not members of another synchronized group, and converts the group to unmanaged so it can be modified or deleted from the Duo Admin Panel or Admin API. Duo updates the group's name to indicate it was once managed by directory sync, changing from Group name from AD Sync "name of sync" to Group name (formerly from "name of sync").
Should you want to put your directory sync on hold to prevent it from making changes to your imported users, you can do so without removing your Active Directory configured sync from Duo. Use the pause functionality to stop scheduled syncs from running until you want to resume them.
To pause or resume synchronization of a directory:
In the Duo Admin Panel, navigate to Users → Directory Sync and click the Active Directory tab.
Click on the directory for which you want to pause or resume scheduled syncs to view its configuration page.
Click the Pause Scheduled Syncs or Resume Scheduled Syncs button in the Directory Sync "Status" section to perform the stated action. The sync status updates to reflect the effective state of the scheduled sync.
You can perform manual full and individual syncs at any time from the Admin Panel or via Admin API while the scheduled sync remains paused.
If your AD sync has no selected groups in the configuration then we'll pause scheduled syncs right away and the sync's status will show an alert for no groups selected. Select a group or groups and save the change to resume the sync.
Duo tracks failures of your scheduled directory synchronizations. We'll send a notification email to all Duo administrators with the Owner, Administrator, or User Manager roles after three (3) days of consecutive sync failures. If the failure persists, we'll send additional notification emails after seven (7) and 14 days. Duo will send a final email notification after 30 days of consecutive sync failures and pause the scheduled sync automatically.
Visit your Active Directory sync's page in the Admin Panel to correct the issues preventing sync success, or delete the directory sync if you no longer wish to use it.
To resume the paused sync after correcting any issues, click the Resume Scheduled Syncs button in the Directory Sync "Status" section.
Deleting a directory from Duo doesn't delete or disable any of the previously imported objects. When you delete a synced directory from Duo, then the users, phones, and groups formerly managed by that sync remain available and get converted to unmanaged Duo objects that can be manually updated or deleted.
Users previously synced remain available and retain the status previously assigned, whether applied to the synced group or to the individual user. Any authentication devices associated with the user remain available. The users retain their former group memberships.
Groups previously synced remain available and retain the same members and status assigned when they were managed by the sync. The group name changes from Group name from type of sync "name of sync" to Group name (formerly from "name of sync").
Phones previously synced remain in Duo attached to the same users. Activation status remains unchanged.
To delete a synced directory:
In the Duo Admin Panel, navigate to Users → Directory Sync and click the Active Directory tab.
Click on the directory you want to delete to view its configuration page.
Click the Delete Directory link at the top-right and confirm that you want to delete that directory.
Be sure to review frequently asked questions and answers before using Duo's Active Directory synchronization.
Need some help? Take a look at the Active Directory Sync Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) page or try searching our Active Directory Sync Knowledge Base articles or Community discussions. For further assistance, contact Support.
On the details page of your directory sync there is a Troubleshooting section under the “Sync Now” button. Here you'll find tips to help your sync run as intended. If you are still having issues and need to open a support case with Duo, you can click Sync Full Directory with Diagnostics to provide Duo Support with more information about your sync.
Additionally, a sync reference code is now provided on every sync. This will be included on every directory sync event captured in the Administrator Actions Log, as well as within any emails Duo sends you about sync errors. Duo Support will request this code to locate logs associated with your sync.